Direct & Indirect Taxes
Direct Taxes are the taxes that are levied on the income of individuals or organisations. Income tax, corporate tax, inheritance tax are some instances of direct taxation. Income tax is the tax levied on individual income from various sources like salaries, investments, interest etc. Corporate tax is the tax paid by companies or firms on the incomes they earn.
Indirect Taxes are those paid by consumers when they buy goods and services. These include excise and customs duties. Customs duty is the charge levied when goods are imported into the country, and is paid by the importer or exporter. Excise duty is a levy paid by the manufacturer on items manufactured within the country. Usually, these charges are passed on to the consumer.
Under chapter 4 of Income Tax Act, 1961 (Section 14), income of a person is calculated under various defined heads of income. The total income is first assessed under heads of income and then it is charged for Income Tax as under rules of Income Tax Act. According to Section 14 of Income Tax Act, 1961, there are following heads of income under which total income of a person is calculated:
• Heads of Income: Salary
• Heads of Income: House Property
• Heads of Income: Profit In Business/ Profession
• Heads of Income: Capital Gains
• Heads of Income: Other Sources
Amendments can be found here and here.